Theory of Everything (STOE)

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Figure A. The primary structure of a cell of the universe.

The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) posits the components of the universe are introduced through Sources at the center of spiral galaxies. The components are removed from the universe through Sinks at the center of elliptical galaxies. That is, the spiral galaxies form around the Sources and elliptical galaxies form around the Sinks. This thermodynamic model calculates a theoretical average temperature of the universe of 2.718 K [1]. Also, the ratio of the luminosity of Source galaxies to the luminosity of Sink galaxies approaches 2.7 K [2]. The present and past deviations are also explained as a Source and Sink hunting the average. The nearness of the ratio to the universe temperature suggests the B-band luminosity is an indicator of galaxy strength. This explains the differences between spiral and elliptical galaxies, cooling flows, and the intergalactic medium.


Standard models of General Relativity (the Big) and Quantum Mechanics (the Small) are contradictory[3].

  • The One Universe Principle states we are in one universe and the fundamental principles apply to the Big, the Small, and to life.
    • The universe is fractal on all scales. The Quantum world obeys the same equations as our everyday world. The "quantum weirdness" such as wave-particle duality, observer dependence, and entanglement is a misinterpretation of observations. Instead, a new set of fundamental components and their interaction (Spirit) are needed.
    • All known thermodynamic systems in the universe are thermodynamically open. Therefore, the universe must be open and not adiabatic.
  • Negative Feedback Loop Principle (NFL) posits nested NFL's controls the universe's processes. The temperature of the universe is such a process[1]. The illusion of "fine tuning" a parameter is the result of an NFL.
    • Any parameter or process not on a NFL becomes unstable and eventually ceases.
  • There are only two basic entities of the universe and their interaction (Spirit). A fundamental characteristic of the STOE is that entities of our universe occur in pairs --- discrete, continuous; algebra, geometry; positive, negative; gravitational mass, inertial mass; and electric (E), magnetic (M). *There is no such thing as an "isolated system".


The STOE suggests there are two and only two fundamental components of the universe. They are "hods" that emerge into the left set of pairs and "plenum" that emerge in the right set of pairs. These terms and their fundamental status are unique to the STOE. All other structures of our universe emerge from the properties of these two components. So, the procedure to develop the STOE was to identify physics problem observations and conceive of the properties of the two agents that could emerge to yield the general observations of accepted models [4] and that could explain the problem observations.

The hods are discrete and cause the plenum to warp plenum density .

The force of the field that acts on matter is


where the is a proportionality constant which is the surface area of the hods that the acts; is the property of particles on which acts; , is caused by waves in the plenum, and is the sum of the effects of all galaxies and masses:


where the subscript, lower case, italic, roman letters are indices; and are numbers representing the strength of the Source and Sink, respectively; is the gravitational mass of the object; , , and are proportionality constants; , , and are the distance from a Source, a Sink, and mass, respectively, to the point at which is calculated; , , and ; and , , are the number of Sources, Sinks, and matter, respectively, used in the calculation.

Hodge (2016) [5] suggested the property of matter is the cross section of the particle; the , where is the effective mass of the Source galaxy; and the , where is the effective mass of the Sink galaxy.

If the effect of the galaxies Sources and Sinks is small, the is the Newtonian gravitational force.

Hods travel through the plenum at the fastest speed of matter. The plenum is continuous and causes the hods to move by a . The plenum waves travel at many times the speed of light and have the property of inertia [6]. Matter consists of hods and plenum and, therefore, has both gravitational attraction mass of the hods and inertial mass of the captive plenum. The Equivalence principle derives from the constant amount of plenum held by each hod. This model corresponds to both General Relativity and quantum mechanics [4].

The action observed is by direct interaction of the components of the universe not by "action-at-a-distance". The hods cause the plenum to warp. The plenum supports wave action at a speed much greater then the speed of the hods (light). The plenum directs the hods. That is, there is no "local" action. All action is "non-local" in the sense of Bell's Inequality.

The Big[edit]

The STOE explains many problematical cosmological observations:

  • Figure B. The variation of universe temperature over time.
    The hunting of microwave background temperature suggests a variation over time as seen in the figure B. The universe is currently decreasing in temperature or slowing expansion because it is still above the average. The peak about five billion years ago marks the end of a period of temperature increase or expansion. This is the explanation of the supernova expansion that is interpreted as "dark energy" [1]. The minimum before then is about 15 billion years ago that marks when the universe temperature stopped decreasing and started increasing (the "Big Bang").
  • Galaxy redshift was explained using 32 spiral galaxies of the Key Project (correlation coefficient 0.80) with a higher correlation coefficient of 0.88 [2]. This model of photons loosing energy recovered the Hubble Law as a linear equation where the constant accounts for the blueshift of nearby galaxies. The decline of energy is by the release of hods and a reduction of plenum (inertia) held by the photon.
  • The redshift model also explains the observed discrete redshift.
  • The Pioneer Anomaly (PA) was explained using the same equation and concept as the galaxy redshift with solar system masses warping along the signal path [7]. The PA is an unexplained signal frequency shift from the spacecraft [P(10) and P(11)] expressed as an unexplained acceleration . The STOE is consistent with the general value of ; with the annual and diurnal periodicity; with the differing between the spacecraft; with the discrepancy between Sigma and CHASMP programs at P10 (I) and their closer agreement at P10 (III); with the slowly declining ; with the low value of immediately before the P11's Saturn encounter; with the high uncertainty in the value of obtained during and after the P11's Saturn encounter; with the being Earth directed rather than Sun directed; and with the cosmological connection suggested by ( is the speed of light and is the Hubble constant). No other model explains all the observed anomalies.
  • The 2006 STOE PA predictions that no other model predicted were found in 2009 and 2011 [8].
  • The rotation curves (RC) of the 105 galaxy sample included a wide range of characteristics including rising, falling and flat RCs [5]}. The equations used in the analysis considered the from mass (gravity) and from the Source. Astronomers have tracked the behavior of the plenum from Sources as ``dark matter.
  • Asymmetric RCs effect was calculated, with a term , where is a constant, is the acceleration (force) exerted by the neighbor galaxies, and is the radial distance to the maximum asymmetry along the major axis of the target galaxy [5]}. The uncertainty change from for RC only to when asymmetry was included.
  • Several outer galaxy parameters have been found to correlate with galaxy central mass and central velocity dispersion [9]. This is difficult to model in spiral galaxies using infall models. The STOE model suggests an outflow from the center followed by a return flow in spiral galaxies. The was found to correlate to host galaxy's B band luminosity for a sample of 82 galaxies. The was found to correlate to host galaxy's B band luminosity for a sample of 29 galaxies. The sample included seven galaxies other studies excluded.
  • Gravity may have two distinct types of characteristics. It my merely transmit changes that revolving masses may introduce gravity ripples that can be mistaken as waves. Or, gravity may transmit true waves. A test has been propose to distinguish these possibilities[10].

The Small[edit]

The STOE was extended into the world of the small by using the characteristics of the two components of the universe to model light.

  • The redshift model suggested photons were columns of hods. Each hod column causes waves in the plenum. These waves cause other photons to change relative position as they travel. This causes the coherence of photons over long distances [11].
  • Extending the photon model to single photon diffraction and interference [12] suggested an experiment that rejected wave models of light [13]. A further extension of the experiment suggested another experiment [14]. Both these experiments predicted their result that rejected wave models of light and suggested a different approach to Quantum Mechanics [15].
  • The model simulation of diffraction suggested characteristics of hods and photons. One is that the hod is a magnet. The photon is a bar magnet. This allows assembles of disc magnets to construct models of particles [16]. This explained the observation of the Stern-Gerlach Experiment in terms of alignment of magnetic poles. This is usually called "spin", but it is not physical spin of particles [17]. These structures are magnetic with North and South poles as shown in the diagrams in [16]. The other is the cause of the waves in the plenum that direct the photons. A model of how the Stern-Gerlach Experiment produces the "spin 1/2" observation of electrons was based upon the structure [17]}.
  • Matter is more prevalent in the universe than antimatter because antimatter is more difficult to form [16].
  • The observations of E and M fields that combine to form Maxwell's Equations are macroscopic concepts. Because of the speed of waves in the coulomb field is much greater than light, the coulomb field has been explained as vortices of the plenum caused by movement of hods [18] [19].
  • The pair fundamental observation of the universe suggests the M is a hod emergent effect. The speed of electromagnetic waves is the speed of light. The hod is a magnet analogous to a disc magnet. The model of the magnetic field resulted in a different view of a magnetic field. A experiment rejected the The (simplified) magnetostatics Biot-Savart Law [20].Two other experiments supported the STOE model of two types of magnetic forces [21].[22]. One type is caused by hods and is the EM signals. The other is caused by the plenum. This model resolves the magnetic asymmetry ("moving magnet and conductor problem") in the application of Maxwell's Equations that was partly the motivation for Special Relativity.
  • The axioms that replace Special Relativity are: (1) Time progression (d$t$) is a constant in the universe rather than the speed of light. (2) The diameter of the hods is the same throughout the universe. (3) The distance between hods is related to plenum density$\rho$. Higher $\rho$ reduces the distance between hods. (4) The speed of photons and hods is the greatest of any matter in a given environment. And (5) The speed of the plenum wave is much faster than the speed of the hods. [23]. The STOE passes the tests of Special Relativity and does much more. The STOE is a major paradigm shift.


Emergent philosophy was derived from observations of biology, life, and societies. The "arrow of time" develops because of the selection of entities. Once an entity is selected against, it cannot be recreated by reduction [24]. The STOE model suggests matter is emitted by Sources. Some matter goes out and is attracted back into the spiral galaxy. The condition is similar to the cooling flows around elliptical galaxies. Suns form heavier elements as evidenced by the metallicity-radius relation. The action is to emit radiation to cool the material and to increase entropy. If agents can combine is such a way to increase the rate of entropy growth, these entities will be selected in the emergence process for survival. Thus, life and societies are preferred[25]. The purpose of life is to increase the rate of entropy growth in spiral galaxies. Life than cools the universe such that elliptical galaxies (Sinks) are cooler and smaller. Thus, there is no net effect on the energy (temperature) of the universe. Survival becomes the only moral goal of life and societies [26].

Nature's law is grow or die. The problem for humanity is how to grow our society beyond present warring nations[27] [28]..


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Hodge, J. C., Scalar potential model of the CMB radiation temperature. 2006. [1]. Video: [2]
  2. 2.0 2.1 Hodge, J. C. Scalar potential model of redshift and discrete redshift. NewA, 2006, v. 11 (5), 344--358. [3]. Video: [4] Video: [5]
  3. Hodge, J. C., Universe according to the STOE. IntellectualArchive, 2015, V. 5, (1), 1-36. [6].
  4. 4.0 4.1 Hodge, J. C., Scalar Theory of Everything model correspondence to the Big Bang model and to Quantum Mechanics. IntellectualArchive, 2014, v. 3 (1), 12--23. [7]
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Hodge, J. C. Scalar potential model of spiral galaxy HI rotation curves and rotation curve asymmetry. [8]. Video: [9] Video: [10]
  6. Hodge, J. C., STOE Inertia, IntellectualArchive, 2017, v. 6 (1), 1--5. [11]. Video: [12]
  7. Hodge, J. C., Scalar potential model of the Pioneer Anomaly. [13]. Video: [14]
  8. Hodge, J. C. Pioneer Anomaly predictions confirmed. Presented at APS meeting April 2013, session X 9. [15]
  9. Hodge, J. C., Scalar potential model of galaxy central mass and central velocity dispersion. [16] Video: [17]
  10. Hodge, J. C., Gravity experiment proposal to unite quantum mechanics and general relativity. [18]
  11. Hodge, J. C., Photon diffraction and interference. Template:IntellectualArchive, 2012, v. 1 (3), 31--60. [19]
  12. Hodge, J. C. Single Photon diffraction and interference. IntellectualArchive, 2015, v. 4 (4), 1--11. [20]
  13. Hodge, J. C. Template:Diffraction experiment and its STOE photon simulation program rejects wave models of light. IntellectualArchive, 2015, v. 4 (6), 6-16
  14. Hodge, J. C., Hodge experiment (continued) of interference with a slit in a transparent mask rejects wave models of light. IntellectualArchive, 2017, v. 6 (5), 1--6. [21]. Video: [22]
  15. Hodge, J. C., STOE assumptions that model particle diffraction and that replaces QM. IntellectualArchive, 2016, v. 5 (3), 1--6.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 Hodge, J. C. Structure and spin of the neutrino, electron, and positron. IntellectualArchive, 2016, v. 5, (2), 1--8. [23]. Video: [24]
  17. 17.0 17.1 Hodge, J. C. STOE model of the electron spin 1/2 observation. IntellectualArchive, 2016, v. 5 (4), 1--7. [25]. Video: [26]
  18. Hodge, J. C. STOE electric charge. IntellectualArchive, 2018, v. 7 (1), 1--10. [27]
  19. Hodge, J. C. Experiment supports STOE model and rejects the traditional model of a coulomb field. IntellectualArchive, 2018, v. 7 (1), 11--14. [28].
  20. Hodge, J. C., Magnetostatics relation to gravity with experiment that rejects Biot-Savart Law. [29]
  21. Hodge, J. C., Another experiment rejects Ampere's Law and supports the STOE model [30]
  22. Hodge, J. C., Two different types of magnetic field. [31]
  23. Hodge, J. C. Scalar Theory of Everything replacement of Special Relativity. IntellectualArchive, 2018, v. 7 (4), 1--8. [32].
  24. Hodge, J. C., STOE emergence. 2016 [33]
  25. Hodge, J. C. Mathematics and life goals have the same source - nature [34].
  26. Hodge, J. C. Survival is the only moral goal of life. [35].
  27. Hodge, J. C. Growth challenge of the United States. [36].
  28. Hodge, J. C. Scalar Theory of Everything model for steering humanity's growth. [37].