# Interpretation of the fluctuating photoelectric effects of light

## Example Section 1

Interpretation of the fluctuating photoelectric effects of light（wps translate） Chen Yangshun

```Cuizhuang Village, Linzhang County, Handan City, Hebei Province, China 056601; email 15832079375@163.com
```

In 1905, Einstein successfully explained the particle effect of light. Ten years later, I successfully explained the photoelectric effect with the theory of fluctuation.

```In the 17th century, Kadir proposed two hypotheses of light; one was that light was composed of small particles, and the other was that light had waves propagating by aether. After this developed into the particle said and fluctuation said
Newton divided the light into seven colors through a prism, and proposed that the light was composed of particles. With Newton's powerful influence in the physics world. Parsay have an absolute advantage.
Later, Thomas Yang, proved the volatility of the light through a two-slit interference experiment. Fresnel predicted the existence of Poisson's bright spot. Poisson demonstrated its existence and found the diffraction of light. The fluctuation theory overcame the particle theory and became the ruling power of optics.
In 1887, Hertz discovered the photoelectric effect, for which he won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921. The fluctuation theory of light has problems in explaining the photoelectric effects.
In 1905, Einstein's particle theory of light successfully explained the photoelectric effect, and won the Nobel Prize in physics in 1921.
```

```The energy of light is one by one, each photon has the same energy, and an electron can absorb only one photon. The energy of a photon minus the energy needed for an electron to escape the orbit, and the remaining energy is the energy of the electron. Because the energy required for photon and electron escape is certain, the photoelectron energy is determined. Thus there is a maximum velocity. This is the cut-off voltage.
The energy of the photon is proportional to the frequency of the photon vibration. When the frequency of the electromagnetic wave is low, the photon energy is insufficient to knock the electrons out of the orbit. This explains the cutoff frequency.
Because the number of photons is limited, the hit electron is finite. This explains the maximum electric current.
Because the photoelectric effect is the impact of photons and electrons, the time is extremely short, which is instantaneous.
Einstein won the Nobel Prize for his successful interpretation of photoelectric effects.
```

```More than another 100 years have passed. I found that, in fact, we can use the fluctuation theory to explain the photoelectric effect. The reason why we used the fluctuation theory to explain the photoelectric effect was because we used a continuous, large range of electromagnetic waves. When we use a small piece, a small piece, a small piece of electromagnetic waves, we successfully explain the photoelectric effect.
Cutoff frequency; this reconciliation and good explanation, resonance! They resonate when the frequency of electromagnetic waves vibrate, approaching the frequency of electrons rotating around the nucleus. So the electronics overflow. So why do electrons overflow when the light frequency is above the cutoff frequency? First of all, the light is only a short part of the electromagnetic waves, and its frequency is 3.9 * 10 (14) to 7.5 * 10 (14) Hertz. The frequency of the light just having the photoelectric effect is only close to the frequency of the electron turning around the nucleus, and when the frequency of the light increases, it is closer. The resonance is more intense, so that when the frequency increases, the optoelectronic energy is higher. In the absolute resonance theory, when the frequency of the electromagnetic wave increases, then the energy of the photoelectron will decrease. Because the frequency of light vibration is already higher than the frequency of electrons shaking around the nucleus. But by this time, it was no longer visible light. Finally, the photoelectric effect disappears. However, with the increase of the frequency, a new photoelectric effect will occur. Because he had a new resonance with the electrons in the inner orbit.
Cut-off voltage; the resonance disappears when electrons overflow from atoms. Photoelectron can get only a small amount of energy that resonates together. This is the first factor in the presence of a cut-off voltage. Although, the electromagnetic wave fluctuations have strong and weak, but it conforms to the normal distribution, and the distribution is more concentrated, the vibration energy is too strong and too weak are very few. Very little energy is too high to be measured. This is the second factor in the presence of a cut-off voltage. The stronger the light wave energy, the shorter the resonance time, the weaker the light wave vibration, the longer the resonance time, this is the third factor in the existence of a cut-off voltage.
Maximum current; for small segments, small pieces of light. Electrons vary in the state of the atomic and. When a small piece of light hits the metal, the electrons overflow at different times. Because electromagnetic waves are limited, the number of photoelectrons is also limited. This is the maximum electric current. When the light becomes stronger, and the number of small pieces of light increases, the number of photoelectrons increases, and the maximum current increases. The light becomes stronger, not the amplitude of the light wave increases, but the amount of small pieces of light increases. Thus increasing the maximum electric current.
Instantaneous; the frequency of photon vibration is up to 3.9 * 10 (14) Hz, the photoelectric effect occurs 100 times, that time is less than 10 (-11) s. The result of this observation has been made.
```

```Since light is small pieces, why the light we see is continuous. Watching TV is, as long as the picture change frequency reaches 20 pieces per second. What we see is the continuous animation. In other words, it shines into our eyes at 60 times per second. Even if the light is not very evenly distributed, we see a continuous stream of light. The speed of light is up to 300,000 kilometers per second. The light shining into our eyes is more than 60 short segments, which is why the light we see is continuous. The led lamp we use now, the frequency of light flicker is 50 Hz, we also can't feel his flicker.
```
```Although Einstein explained the four characteristics of the photoelectric effect with the particle theory, two problems could not be solved. The first, light shines through the metal, so why do electrons play in the direction of the light. Second, he is unable to solve the interference and diffraction of light.
```

```There is another experiment that can prove that light is a little piece, a little piece. When we turned on the two lights, no resonance was observed, but the lights in the house were brighter. But when we turn on a light and take a mirror to reflect his light, it will interfere with the original light. I did this experiment, and you can do it, too. Very simple. Why is this? Because the short segments of a little light are out of sync. But when the light from a lamp is synchronized, and when the mirror reflects its light to the wall, it interferes.
```

```The evidence that light is particle is not only the photoelectric effect, but this paper mainly explains the photoelectric effect through the fluctuation theory. As for the particle of particle particles, this article does not discuss. I am just an ordinary person who, if first, denies the basic physics conclusion of wave-particle duality of light. I worry, you treat me like a mental illness and put me in a mental hospital.
```

CONCLUSION I successfully explained the photoelectric effect with the fluctuation theory. Reference document; 1; junior high school chemistry textbook 2; High school physics textbook 3; News fly spark big model Thanks, middle school chemistry teacher; high school physics teacher

The Explanation of Photoelectric Effect by the Fluctuation of Light（Baidu Translate） Chen Yangshun Cuizhuang Village, Zhuanzhaiying Town, Linzhang County, Handan City, Hebei Province, China 056601; E-mail 15832079375@163.com Summary; In 1905, Einstein successfully explained the photoelectric effect using the particle nature of light. 100 years later, I successfully explained the photoelectric effect using wave theory. In the 17th century, Cardiel proposed two hypotheses about light; One is that light is composed of small particles, and the other is that light has waves that propagate through the ether. Afterwards, it developed into particle theory and wave theory Newton divided light into seven colors through a prism and proposed that light is composed of particles. Thanks to Newton's powerful influence in the field of physics. The particle theory has an absolute advantage. Afterwards, Thomas Yang demonstrated the wave nature of light through double slit interference experiments. Fresnel predicted the existence of Poisson's patches. Poisson proved its existence and discovered diffraction of light. Wave theory defeated particle theory and became the dominant force in optics. In 1887, Hertz discovered the photoelectric effect and was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921 for it. The wave theory of light has encountered problems in explaining the photoelectric effect. In 1905, Einstein successfully explained the photoelectric effect using the particle theory of light and was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921. The specific explanation is as follows:; The energy of light is one by one, and the energy of each photon is the same. An electron can only absorb one photon. The energy of a photon minus the energy required for an electron to escape from its orbit is the energy of the electron. Because the energy required for photon and electron escape is constant, the energy of photoelectrons is determined. Therefore, there exists a maximum speed. The cut-off voltage also appeared. The energy of photons is directly proportional to the frequency of photon vibration. When the frequency of electromagnetic waves is low, the energy of photons is insufficient to knock electrons out of orbit. This explains the cutoff frequency. Because the number of photons is limited, the electrons being ejected are limited. This explains the maximum current. Because the photoelectric effect is the collision of photons and electrons, the time is extremely short, and this solution is instantaneous. Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for successfully explaining the photoelectric effect using particle theory.

More than 100 years have passed. I have found that we can actually explain the photoelectric effect using wave theory. The reason why we cannot explain the photoelectric effect using wave theory is because we are using continuous electromagnetic waves over a large range. When we use small sections, small sections, small pieces of electromagnetic waves, we successfully explain the photoelectric effect. Cutoff frequency; Is this easy to explain, resonance! When the frequency of electromagnetic wave vibration approaches the frequency at which electrons rotate around atomic nuclei, resonance occurs. So the electrons overflowed. Why do electrons overflow when the frequency of light is higher than the cutoff frequency? Firstly, light is just a small segment of electromagnetic waves, with frequencies ranging from 3.9 * 10 (14) to 7.5 * 10 (14) hertz. The frequency of light that has just undergone photoelectric effects is only close to the frequency of electrons rotating around atomic nuclei. As the frequency of light increases, it becomes even closer. Resonance is stronger, so as the frequency increases, the energy of photoelectrons increases. According to the fundamental resonance theory, as the frequency of electromagnetic waves increases, the energy of photoelectrons will decrease. Because the frequency of light vibration is already higher than the frequency of electrons vibrating around atomic nuclei. But by this time, it was no longer visible light. Finally, the photoelectric effect disappears. But as the frequency increases, new photoelectric effects will occur. Because he experiences a new resonance with the electrons in the inner orbital. Cutoff voltage; No matter how long the electromagnetic wave lasts, resonance disappears when electrons overflow from the atom. The energy that photoelectrons can obtain is only a small amount of energy that resonates together. This is the first factor that affects the existence of cutoff voltage. Although electromagnetic waves have varying strengths and weaknesses, they follow a normal distribution and are relatively concentrated, with very few vibrations that are too strong or too weak. The energy is too high, so it cannot be measured. This is the second factor that affects the cutoff voltage. The stronger the energy of the light wave, the shorter the resonance time, the weaker the vibration of the light wave, and the longer the resonance time. This is the third factor that affects the existence of cutoff voltage. Maximum current; Because light travels in small segments, one piece at a time. Electrons have different states in atoms and. When a small piece of light shines on a metal, the time for electrons to overflow varies depending on their state. Because electromagnetic waves are finite, the number of photoelectrons is also limited. This is the maximum current. When the light intensity increases, the number of small segments of light increases, and the number of photoelectrons also increases, resulting in an increase in the maximum current. The increase in light intensity is not due to an increase in the amplitude of light wave vibration, but rather to an increase in the number of small segments of light. Thereby increasing the maximum current. Instantaneous; The frequency of photon vibration is as high as 3.9 * 10 (14) Hertz, and if the photoelectric effect occurs after 100 vibrations, the time is also less than 10 (-11) seconds. The result of this observation has been consistent. Why is the light we see continuous since it is small pieces, small pieces, small segments, and small segments. Watching TV, as long as the screen change frequency reaches 20 frames per second. What we see is a continuous animation. In other words, as long as the light shining into our eyes is greater than 60 short segments per second. Even if the distribution of light is not very uniform, what we see is still continuous light. And the speed of light can reach up to 300000 kilometers per second. The light that shines into our eyes in one second is not just 60 short segments, which is why the light we see is continuous. The LED light we are currently using flickers at a frequency of 50 Hz, and we cannot feel its flicker either. Although Einstein explained the four characteristics of the photoelectric effect using particle theory, there were two problems that could not be solved. The first one is why electrons shoot out from the direction of light when light enters the metal through this surface. The second one is that he cannot solve the interference and diffraction of light. There is another experiment that can prove that light is a small piece, a small piece, a small piece. When we turned on the two lights, we did not observe any resonance, but the lights in the room were clearer. But when we turn on a lamp and use a mirror to reflect its light, it will interfere with the original light. I have done this experiment, you can also do it. It's very simple. Why is this? Because the two lights emit small segments of light that are not synchronized. But the light emitted by a lamp is synchronized, and when a mirror reflects its light onto a wall, it undergoes interference. The evidence for the particle nature of light goes beyond the photoelectric effect, but this article mainly explains the photoelectric effect through wave theory. As for the non particle nature of light, this article will not discuss it. I am just an ordinary person, and if I were to come up with it, I would deny the fundamental physics conclusion of the wave particle duality of light. I'm worried, you treat me like a mental illness and lock me up in a mental hospital. Conclusion: I successfully explained the photoelectric effect using wave theory. Reference documents; 1; Junior high school chemistry textbook 2; High School Physics Textbook 3; IFlytek Spark Big Model Thank you, junior high school chemistry teacher; High school physics teacher

```                              陈杨顺
中国河北省邯郸市临漳县砖寨营镇崔庄村056601；电子邮箱15832079375@163.com
摘要；1905年， 爱因斯坦成功的用光的粒子性解释了光电效应。100年后我成功的用波动学说解释了光电效应。
```

17世纪，卡迪尔提出光的两种假说；一个是光是由一个个小微粒组成的，另一个是光是有靠以太传播的波。在这后发展成微粒说和波动说 牛顿通过三棱镜将光分成七种颜色，并提出光是有粒子组成。凭借牛顿在物理界强大的影响力。微粒说占了绝对优势。 之后，托马斯 杨，通过双缝干涉实验证明了光的波动性。菲涅尔预言啦泊松亮斑的存在。泊松证明了它的存在，发现了光的衍射。波动学说战胜了粒子学说，成为统治光学的力量。

```    1887年，赫兹发现了光电效应，并因此获得了1921年的诺贝尔物理学奖。光的波动学说在解释光电效应时遇到了问题。
1905年，爱因斯坦用光的粒子学说成功的解释了光电效应，并获得了1921年的诺贝尔物理学奖。
```

```     爱因斯坦因为用粒子学说成功解释光电效应，而获得了诺贝尔奖。

```
```    时间又过了100多年。我发现，其实我们是可以用波动学说解释光电效应的。我们之所以用波动学说解释不了光电效应，那时因为我们用的是连续大范围的电磁波。当我们用一小段，一小段，一小片一小片的电磁波时，我们就成功的解释了光电效应。
```

```         2；高中物理课本
3；讯飞星火大模型
```

## Example Section 2

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